• <td id="qws6l"><strike id="qws6l"></strike></td>
        <acronym id="qws6l"></acronym>
        返回首頁

        英國論文代寫:西歐國家性別工資差異現象研究

        時間:2020-09-23 01:00:35 來源:www.aleyasingroup.com 作者:織夢技術論壇 點擊聯系客服: 客服:Damien
        1.1 Background背景

        性別工資差距是男女工資的差異,是基于所有員工的平均小時工資的平均差異。 平均來說,歐盟女性比男性1小時少賺16%左右。性別工資差距在一生中的作用是什么?性別工資差距的影響意味著女性在她們的一生中掙得更少,這會導致較低的養老金和老年人的貧困風險。2012,21.7%歲以上的婦女中有65處于貧困風險,而男性占16.3%。使用每小時的工資為基礎計算的性別工資差距也可以掩蓋具體工資的差異,沒有記錄,例如,獎金,績效工資或季節性付款。這就很容易造成男女工資不平等。
        The gender pay gap is the difference between men’s and women’s pay, based on the average difference in gross hourly earnings of all employees. On average, women in the EU earn around 16 % less per hour than men .What is the effect of the gender pay gap over a lifetime? The impact of the gender pay gap means that women earn less over their lifetimes; this results in lower pensions and a risk of poverty in old age. In 2012, 21.7 % of women aged 65 and over were at risk of poverty, compared to 16.3 % of men.  Using hourly pay as a basis for calculating the gender pay gap can also mask specific differences in pay that go unrecorded, for example, bonus payments, performance-related pay or seasonal payments.  

        Background背景
        圖:gender pay gap

        1.2 Gender equality in wages工資性別平等

        性別角色與傳統性別角色和傳統從一個很早的年齡塑造婦女和男人在社會中的角色。傳統和性別角色可能會影響,例如,一個年輕的男人或女人采取的教育路徑的選擇。這些決定受傳統的價值觀和工作模式的假設。研究表明,女性在高級職位的典型“女性”的職業報酬大大低于女性工作在頂部的典型“男性”的職業生涯。平衡工作和家庭責任婦女工作更短的時間和經常兼職為了把他們的家庭責任和有償工作。
        Gender roles and traditions Gender roles and traditions shape women’s and men’s roles in society from a very early age. Traditions and gender roles may influence, for example, the choice of educational path taken by a young man or woman. These decisions are affected by traditional values and assumptions about working patterns. Research shows that women in senior positions in typically ‘feminine’ careers are paid substantially less than women working at the top in typically ‘masculine’ careers .Balancing work and family responsibilities Women work shorter hours and often part-time in order to combine their family responsibilities with paid work.

        工資性別平等#p#分頁標題#e#
        圖:gender pay gap by job level

        婦女在工作中取得進步和獲得更高薪水的機會也受到家庭責任的影響。當婦女生孩子和打工時,性別差距會擴大。女性從事家務和護理工作的時間比男性多,很少有人選擇產假或兼職。雖然男性工作時間比女性在工作場所,如果婦女的報酬和無償工作時間相結合,他們明顯長于男性。
        Opportunities for women to progress in their jobs and receive higher pay are also affected by their family responsibilities. The gender pay gap widens when women have children and when they work part-time. Women spend more time than men carrying out domestic and care work, and few men take parental leave or work part-time. While men work longer hours than women in the workplace, if women’s paid and unpaid working hours are combined they are significantly longer than men’s.

        婦女工作
        圖:gender pay gap

        1.3 Introduction and enforcement of laws

        Gender equality plans in companies and audits to reduce  the gender pay gap Gender equality plans and audits enable companies to measure their progress in implementing gender equality and equal pay. In some cases there is a legislative requirement to carry out the plans, while in others it is voluntary.

        In Sweden, the 2009 Discrimination Act 17 requires employers and employees to endeavour to equalise and prevent differences in pay and other terms of employment between women and men who perform work which is to be regarded as equal or of equal value. They are also supposed to promote equal pay growth opportunities for women and men. Finally, the Act requires employers to carry out a pay survey every three years in order to detect, remedy, and prevent unjustified differences between women and men’s pay, terms and conditions of employment, and draw up an equal pay action plan (if employing 25 or more workers).

        In Austria, the National Action Plan for Gender Equality in the Labour Marketincludes a compulsory requirement for companies to publish equal pay reports. Companies have to draw up staff income reports every two years. The reports must show the number of men and women classified under each category as well as the average or median income, adjusted for working time, for women and men in the respective category. The goal is to create income transparency and take measures to reduce gender pay gaps. The equal pay reports are compulsory for companies with more than 1 000 employees from 2011 for the year 2010, for companies with more than 500 employees since 2012, for companies with more than 250 employees in 2013 and with more than 150 employees in 2014.

        (責任編輯:織夢技術論壇)


        ------分隔符-------------------------------------
        UK Thesis Base Contacts
        推薦內容
        • 代寫英國論文如何加強邏輯性

          寫作英國畢業論文時,邏輯不清晰是大忌。特別是社會科學類專業論文,需要向讀者傳達某個觀點時,如何合理地構建一篇文章就顯得尤為重要。一般來說,我們判斷一篇論文的好壞......

        • 這些Feedback能幫你寫...

          作為一名英國留學生,寫畢業論文遇到困難是很正?,F象,但只要你努力克服,這個困難最多只是讓你多話費一些時間罷了,最后仍然可以得到一篇優秀的畢業論文。下文是一名劍橋......

        • 英國留學生論文結構與寫作注意...

          去英國留學在部分人看來可能是避免競爭激烈高考的捷徑,但每一名英國留學生絕對不這么想。因為在英國讀大學,課業比國內大學繁重的多,畢業論文要求也嚴格得多??赡苡腥藭?.....

        • 代寫英國論文范文:Maint...

          導讀:這是一篇英國留學生作業范文(計算機專業),討論了計算機軟件的維護。作為計算機系統中的重要組成部分,計算機軟件系統在運行的過程中能夠有效地實現計算機的各種功......

        • 如何讓英國畢業論文順利通過

          本文是英國留學生論文寫作指導,主要內容是針對英國畢業論文如何做到順利通過這一大部分英國學生最關心的問題進行講解。...

        • 英國碩士論文:外國直接投資-...

          本文是英國留學生碩士論文范文,主要內容是解釋外國直接投資的基本內容,以及對比印度和中國的外國直接投資的差異。...

        ? 日本一级婬片免费放天天
      1. <td id="qws6l"><strike id="qws6l"></strike></td>
            <acronym id="qws6l"></acronym>