British literature has a long history, and a long, complex evolutionary process. In this process, the literature noumenon outside of the various realistic, history, politics, and culture with the power of influence on literary happen, internal follow their rules of literature, after Anglo-Saxon, Renaissance, new classicism and romanticism, realism, modernism and so on the different historical stages. To the development process of English literature reviewed.
A, medieval literature (about 5 th century-1485)
British initial literature with other countries the original literature, is not written, but spoken. Stories and legends orally, and in telling the constantly in processing, expand, and finally the writing is. The 5 th century, anglian, Saxon, jutes three Germanic tribes started from Denmark, and now the Dutch area ingoing Britain. Anglo-Saxon times left us with Old English literary works, the most important one is the bei Mr WuFu "(Beowulf), it is considered to be the nation's epic. "The Olympic WuFu" tells the hero WuFu bell cut demon in addition to evil, and to fight the dragon story, has the myth legend. This work is drawn from Germanic folk tales, with Anglo-Saxon invasion into Britain today, now what we see of poetry is the early eighth century by England poets write decide, at the time, the British are in the middle ages pagan society to Christian culture as the leading to new social transition period. Therefore, the bei Mr WuFu "also reflect the 7, 8 th century British life style, present a new and old way of life mixed, with clan period of heroism and feudal period of ideal, reflected the Christian Germanic culture and Christian culture two different traditions.
In 1066, living in the northern France in Normandy William led the duke across the English channel, to conquer England. Normandy occupation after England, feudal system to strengthen and complete, the French cultural dominant, French become palace and the upper aristocratic society of the language. This period a fad form of literature is romantic legend, and the most popular about king Arthur and the knights of the story. The GaoWen jazz and Green Knight "(Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, 1375-1400) to king Arthur and his knights as subject matter, sing praise to brave, loyalty, virtue, is the most beautiful legend middle English one of work. Epic literature about the special noble knight experience of adventures and romantic love, is the feudal social development to mature stage social ideal embodiment.
14 centuries later, British capitalist industry and commerce is developing fast, bourgeois rise, English gradually returned to its reputation, all levels of the society generally use English, for excellent English literature produce provided a condition. JieFuLi Chaucer (Geoffrey Chaucer, 1343-1400) marks the emergence of local literature in the UK for the mainstream literature in written form the beginning of history. The Canterbury Tales (The Canterbury Tales) to a group of pilgrims from London set out to Canterbury pilgrimage for clues, through to The vivid and they describe patrons of The story along The way, draw The outline of a medieval England social life style appearance condition drawing. Chaucer hero is the first poem, namely iambic pentameter double rhyme body, for English poetry has made a great contribution to rhythm, and was known as "the father of English poetry." Chaucer style of writing concise beautiful, smooth and natural, he's creative practice English will be promoted to a higher level of literature, promote the English as the national language of British unified process.#p#分頁標題#e#
Second, the Renaissance literature (15 late s-17 th century)
Relative to other European countries for, Britain's Renaissance starting late, usually think is in the 15 th century. The Renaissance period of the formation of thought system known as humanism, it insists that it is with the person this, against the middle ages to god as the center of the world, promote positive enterprising, enjoy the life happy life ideal. Thomas Moore (Thomas More, 1478-1535) is the most major early humanists, his Utopia (Utopia) criticized at the time, the British and European Community, design of a social equality, public property, people harmonious ideal. Utopia has become the pronoun of idealistic, but Utopia is the author of the social status of the results of the serious thinking. Utopia started British fantasy novel beginning of traditional philosophy, The tradition of bacon from The New onishi island (The New Atlantis), swift's Gulliver's Travels (Gulliver 's Travels), burt, The "ella red huang" (Erewhon) has been extended to The 20 century of science fiction. The Renaissance poetry creation prosperity, Edmund, spencer (Edmund Spenser, 1552-1599) of The long poem "after The" (The Faerie Queene sing praise to The queen, publicize humanistic ideas. He created the "spencer poetic" every day nine poem do, rhythm, complex with soft beautiful still rings in our ears, the musical. Francis Bacon (Francis Bacon, 1561-1626) is the most important period of prose writer, he told the literature is the main contribution of the debate in collection (Essays), a total of 58 articles. These articles wide range of subjects, which involve philosophy, religion, political system and the marriage, love, friendship, and gardening, reading, writing and elegant, with antique sensibility and understand touch. The British drama originated in the medieval church religious ceremonies, based on the bible story and miracle play in the mysterious play 14 or 15 th century a dominant position on the English stage, then appeared in an abstract concept as the characters' morality play. In the sixteenth century, plays into the heyday. Christopher Marlowe (Christopher Marlowe, 1564-1593) break the bondage of the old forms of drama and created a new play. The timurid emperor "(Tamburlaine)," Dr. Faust tragedy "(The Tragical History of The Life and Death of Dr. Faustus), The island of Malta The jews" (The Jew of Malta) plays reflects The Renaissance period The sort of endless curiosity and extreme individualism spirit. Marlowe will drama focused plot in a major role to the practice of his character, the analysis and his ferrite poem drama dialogue, to the development of English drama has made an indelible contribution.
English Renaissance is the most outstanding writer William Shakespeare (the empty vessels make 1564-1616), all his works include two long poem, 154 sonnets and 38 department (said of 39) drama. Shakespeare's major plays A comedy "A Midsummer Night's Dream" (A Midsummer Night 's Dream), and "The Merchant of Venice" (The Merchant of Venice), tragedy "Romeo and Juliet" (Romeo and Juliet), Hamlet (Hamlet), Othello (Othello), King Lear (King Lear), "Macbeth" (Macbeth), historical dramas "Henry IV" (Henry IV), The legend drama "The storm" (The leakag, etc. Shakespeare created character distinct characters, show the feudal system and the capitalist system alternate period magnificent pictures of the past, publicize the humanism and individual liberty. The mission of his profound ideological content, artistic expression superb, centuries, in long time. Shakespeare is a master of language, he handled with English, will the English expressive rich to acme. And Shakespeare also or later still a group of playwright in creation, Ben Johnson (Ben Johnson, 1572-1637) is one of the most main writer, Shakespeare had in His comedy the everyone happy "(Every Man in His Humor) role. Johnson, ironic comedy The fox "(Volpone), and" The Alchemist "(The Alchemist) revealed The social people chasing money The fashion, very strong sex comedy.#p#分頁標題#e#
Three, 17 th century literature
In 1603, queen Elizabeth, after the death of the king and parliament contradiction is becoming increasingly fierce, volatile political situation. In January 1649 the king Charles I was on the ropes in May, Britain is declared a republic. John Milton (John Milton, 1608-1674) were active in the bourgeois revolution, served the republic government Latin secretary, wrote quite a lot of articles defend republic. In 1660, Charlie ii home restoration, Milton once arrested, in a friend help to be death, released home. In blind state, he completed the long poem "Paradise Lost (Paradise Lost) and" after Paradise "(Paradise Regained), ShiJu" Samson Agonistes (Samson Agonistes). These works reflect the restoration after Milton inner pain as well as to the bourgeois revolution adheres attitude, sports grand solemn. 17 th century British poetry another one is metaphysical poetry, representative poet have John dunn (John Donne, 1572-1631) and Andrew Marvell (Andrew Marvell, 1621-1678). The characteristics of the metaphysical poetry is the peculiar image and do not provide craftsmanship parables, knead sensitive and deep speculative at an organic whole. Metaphysical poetry in the 18 and 19 century has been ignored for the world, until the beginning of the twentieth century, just from the dusty reopen in history, the modern socialist a great influence on the poetic style. Restoration period The most popular writer is John class Yang (John Bunyan, 1628-1688), his Pilgrim's Progress (The Pilgrim 's Progress) in The form of dream about religious fable, but opened The veil of The dream, show in front of readers is 17 th century British society of a realistic prospect. After the restoration of the Charles ii, was the puritans closed the theatre, reopened, a new English drama. This period of customs comedy is at that time The top achievement of The drama, William Congreve (William Congreve, 1670-1729) of The Love in The still Love "(Love for Love), The World so" (The Way of The World) plays is custom representative works of comedy. 17 th century, John Dryden (John Dryden, 1631-1700) roam the literary world, set the poet laureate, essayist, playwright, all in one. Dryden about writing plays and stage art in the history of British paper constitute the first group of weight a theatrical review, his prose style is concise the influence the 18 th century many writers style.
Four, the enlightenment literature (17 centuries later-18 centuries metaphase)
1688 years of "the glorious revolution" overthrow restoration of the dynasty, determined the constitutional monarchy, set up the new bourgeoisie and the leadership of the noble regime, Britain has entered a period of relative stability and development. 18 th century, neoclassicism become fashion. The new classical praise highly rational, emphasize the clear, symmetry, temperance, elegant, the pursuit of perfect art form and harmony. Alexander Pope (Alexander Pope, 1688-1744) is the representative of the new classical poetry, he imitated the Roman poet, poetic style exquisite experience qiao, content to preach and irony is given priority to, forms multi-purpose hero double rhyme body, but the lack of deep affection. 18 th century English prose appear prosperity, a basic prose style in the new classical aesthetic principles on top. Richard's, ladder (Richard Steele, 1672-1729) and Joseph Addison, (Joseph Addison, 1672-1719) by creating "the talk" (Tatler) and "the Spectator" (Spectator) journal, published many social customs, with the current daily life, literature interest and so on as the subject matter of the article, they pure and fresh and fair, QingJie smooth writing become the model of imitation of later generations. Jonathan Swift, (Jonathan Swift, 1667-1745) is the greatest English literature of irony prose writer, his style simple easy and strong. Swift's masterpiece Gulliver's Travels (Gulliver 's Travels) is a very charismatic children's story, at the same time embodies profound ideological content. Based on small states, adult's kingdom, fly island nation, hui Malaysian description of the country such as fiction, with a rational for scale, extremely bitterly ironic and attacked British social fields of dark and evil. Samuel Johnson (Samuel Johnson said, 1709-1784) is 18 th century British humanist literature criticism of The giant, "Shakespeare's drama set Preface" (The Preface to Shakespeare) and The poet zhuan "(Lives of The Poets) is he on literary criticism made outstanding contribution. He start from common sense, in some respects, broke through the new classical the frame, thering is no lack of insight. Johnson's prose style are a, set the elegant, Latin prose imposing manner and the English prose and heroic, simple in one body. Johnson in the English Dictionary compilation history plays A unique position, he overcame many difficulties, compiled alone the Dictionary of the English Language (A Dictionary of the English Language), took seven years to complete, this is English history of the A and then one hundred years the only British standard dictionaries. Johnson bring in history, have also benefited from James BaoSiWei er (James Boswell, 1740-1795) for him to write biography "Johnson zhuan" (The Life of Samuel Johson), The book vivid expression of Johnson looks and personality power manner, marking The beginning of The modern biography.#p#分頁標題#e#
18 th century is called the "prose century" another reason is the rise of the novel. Daniel Defoe (Daniel Defoe, 1660-1731) "Crusoe (Robinson Crusoe) adopt a realistic approach, show his life on a lonely island, created a bourgeois Portland and colonialists image, with time spirit. The novel is considered a realistic novel creation of work, for Defoe to win "father of the English novel," the title. Defoe's another novel "Moore Flanders" (Moll Flanders) to narrate the heroine in Britain for life's forced into prostitution and the thief experience. Realism novel in Henry Fielding (Henry Fielding, 1707-1754)'s further development. His "Tom Jones" (Tom Jones) story in the country, way and London three different background spread, to readers the social features of Britain at the time of the panorama. Novels by representatives of the nature and representative Tom reason, wisdom, Sophia valentine ending, express the feelings will be rationality of thought. Encyclopedia eighteen roll, each volume with the author to the art of fiction talking and to start, show Fielding to novel writing a theoretical consciousness. And phil DingTong era of Samuel, Richard Johnson (Samuel Richardson, 1689-1761) the epistolary created "Pamela" (Pamela), and "the carat lisa" (Clarissa Harlowe). He will put into perspective young heroine heart, psychological depict incisively and vividly, make readers to weep. The TuoBiYaSi •, Wright (Tobias Smollett, 1721-1771) is the characteristic of the 18 th century novelist. His "blue on The" (The Adventures of Roderick Random) inherited European tramp novel tradition, The layout is loose, is a series of rapid development, likes or dislikes alternate, change The Adventures of The sharply The combination. Lawrence stern (Lawrence Sterne, 1713-1768) of The item DiChuan "(The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy) break traditional novel narrative mode, written as odd. Each chapter novel accident is differ, some even are blank. The book is filled with long comment and could get in a word, and the emergence of music, asterisks, ellipsis, etc. Stern of novel forms of the 20 th century by Russian formalism critics of attention, the item DiChuan "is considered to be" the most typical in world literature of the novel. "critics say 20 century fiction of the stream of consciousness can be traced back to the strange technique novel.
Of the 18 th century, Britain in the industrial revolution. Many writers of the capitalist industrialization development to nature and the rural traditional way of life bring destruction issued sad exclamation, with nature and emotional as the theme of the sentimentalism works once a popular. Oliver's elder brother's Smith (Oliver Goldsmith, 1730-1774) of The long poem "The desert villages" (The Deserted Village) is The sentimentalism poetry's masterpiece. His "Citizen of The World" (The Citizen of The World) formerly known as "Chinese Letters" for (Chinese Letters), make up a travel in London China henan people LiAnJi (Lien Chi Altangi), he heard and saw in London written Letters sent to The metropolitan Beijing officials, to The Chinese view of The British political and judicial, religion, moral, social tendency for criticism. James Thomson (James Thomson, 1700-1748) of The "four Seasons song" (The Seasons), William Collins (William Collins, 1721-1759) of The Evening, "Ode (Ode to Evening), Thomas Gray (Thomas Gray, 1716-1771) of The cemetery lamentation" (Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard) expression to The state of The tumultuous times poet disgusting and to "natural simple arrangement" yearning, confesses their feelings. British poetry began to move away from the bondage of the neoclassicism, rational advantage position for feeling or perceive what instead.#p#分頁標題#e#
Five, the romantic literature (1798-1832)
18 th century and the early nineteenth century, the British style big change. Scottish farmers poet Robert Burns (Robert Burns, 1759-1796) British poets to bring a breath of fresh air. His lyrics vivid, emotional sincere, the satires sharp sharp, full of humour and wit. William Blake (William Blake, 1757-1827) is woodblock artists and poets, imagine strange, extremely rich individual character. He's short poems image is bright, language and pure and fresh, later long poem content more obscure. His poems establish a unique set of mythology system, has the mysticism colour. Black's revolutionary, creative, and complexity makes him a romantic poetry pioneer.
In 1798, William Wordsworth (William Wordsworth, 1770-1850) and Samuel Taylor Coleridge, (Samuel Taylor Coleridge, 1772-1834) cooperation published a book small anthology of Lyrical Ballads (Lyrical Ballads), most of them from the hand of Wordsworth poem, in simple language describes the simple life. The lyrical ballads marked the introduction of the English romantic literature really rise. Wordsworth in 1802 when the order writing poetry reprint of poetry made famous definition: "good poetry is the spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings flush." the romantic is new to classical backwash: poetry content is no longer a reflection of reality or moral dogma, but the heart of the poet out real feelings; The poetry language not imitate classic writer to pursue the decorous delicate, but to close to the operations of the common everyday language. The romantic poet advocate natural, that the art. The romantic is a more general concept, every poet each have its characteristics. The same is "lake pie" poet, Wordsworth will nature as a great source of inspiration, natural beauty can give a person power and cheerful, a therapeutic effect, make the person's soul purification and sublimation, the law gives natural magical therapeutic kohler color, good at depicting the magnificent airing the supernatural. George Gordon Byron (George Gordon Byron, 1788-1824) and posey than he, Shelley (Percy Bysshe Shelley, 1792-1822) belong to the revolutionary poet, but Byron showing strong consciousness, and Shelley deeply influence Platonic philosophy, look forward to the ideal of beauty and philosophy. John Keats (John Keats, 1795-1821) life to pursue America, is to create art beauty genius poet. The 1820 s, Keats, Shelley and byron have died young, British romantic poetry from strong to the weak, the wind gradually failure.
Six, realism literature (the 1830 s-1918)
In 1837, Queen Victoria (Queen Victoria, 1819-1901) became king. In her reign, a British once made the world trade and industry status of monopoly, science, culture, art appear prosperous situation. Victorian Britain poetry show and romanticism completely different style, poetry people no longer to dwell on the subjective feelings let out, but the emphasis on form and elegant, strives for perfection to the. Robert Browning (Robert Browning, 1812-1889) in his early career had drama writing, and then specialized writing plays a monologue. Drama monologue is a hero by the confessions or talk to express feelings without rhyme of the body. In The past The PIP "(Pippa Passes), and" The Ring and The Book "(The Ring and The Book) in his works, The poet take" The mask ", into The drama characters inner world, with its tone 娓娓而談, language is very vivid, speakers from The page. Alfred Tennyson, (Alfred Tennyson, 1809-1892) in his long career in art created lots of lyrics, poetry and philosophy epic, poetic style dignified, elegant. Tennyson Cambridge friend of harlem to drown, to his poetry creation an impact. The poet In the arm In poem A mourning "(In Memoriam a. h. H) expressed deeply sad and grief, and reflects the essence of life and the destiny of mankind thinking and worry, and become the era voice. The middle of the s, the British economy is developing fast, the material is rich, national strength and prosperous. But the capitalist system caused by all kinds of social contradictions is very sharp, socialist trend begins popularity, as the foundation of western civilization is the challenge of Christian science thought, increasingly become less, in prosperity behind the stalks the undercurrent of anxiety. Matthew, Arnold (Matthew Arnold, 1822-1888) keen to capture the pulse of The Times, in "the magnificent Celtic written in the temple psalms" (Stanzas from the Grande Chartreuse) reveals people situation: "stray in two world between, a dead, another weakness was born." Arnold is the 19 th century British humanist literature criticism outstanding delegates, he on the literature and culture to later discussed influence.#p#分頁標題#e#
Compared with poetry, the 19 th century British novel more brilliant achievements. Walter Scott (Walter Scott, 1771-1832) romantic historical novel for him to win "the father of Western Europe historical novel" reputation. The secret to los Sean prison "(The Heart of Midlothian), and" The e Hector "(Ivanhoe), The characteristics of The novel is about involved in great historical events of common character's story, and display characters in The book to what those social forces and historical forces. By contrast, Jane Austen (Jane Austen, 1775-1817), with a female writer peculiar sharp and exquisite depict the English countryside middle class of life and thought. She said: "a village of three or four families is the appropriate writing object." "Pride and Prejudice" (Pride and Prejudice), "Emma" (Emma) works involve marriage, love, family and property, novel structure compact, dialogues wit, language humor implicative, intriguing. Bronte sisters in the 19 th century British literaay history unique position. Charlotte Bronte, (Charlotte Bronte, 1816-1855) "Jane Eyre" (Jane Eyre) is a story about the heroine of male dominance to overcome all kinds of pressing social women get our own independent growth last novel, romantic love story behind the contains serious thoughts content, the 20 th century by feminist critics of all ages. Emily bront (Emily Bronte, 1818-1848) imagine strange, Wuthering Heights comments not by indirect narrative about a deep and eternal love, novel haggard with civilization, romantic and reality contrast, has a mystical terrorist colour. Anne Bronte (Anne Bronte, 1820-1849) in "Jane eyre" and "wuthering heights in 1847 was also published novel, Agnes, of" Grey's anatomy "(Agnes Grey). George Eliot (George Eliot, 1819-1880) is Mary Ann • Evans (Mary Ann Evans) pen name, the talented 19 century is realistic novel real representative. The eph Ross river Mill "(The Mill on The Floss), and" The weavers MaNa "(Silas Marner) and" m del horse pact "(Middlemarch) works with The practical technique show The British society life pictures, activities and behavior motivation within characters The depict of very vivid meticulous, elliott so is known as psychological novel pioneer. Charles Dickens (Charles Dickens, 1812-1870) is the 19 th century Britain's greatest novelist, and his works the depth and extent of more than any of the contemporary writer. Dickens's famous novel "Oliver Twist" (Oliver Twist), the David Copperfield, "(David Copperfield)," Great Expectations "(Great Expectations) are orphans of the hero, and the writer's unfortunate about childhood experiences. "Bleak House" (Bleak House) to expose the corruption of the British justice system with darkness. A Tale of Two Cities (A Tale of Two Cities) to the French revolution as the background, the vivid representation at the situation in London and Paris, if the circumstances are ups and downs all around. Dickens in his novel shows the Victorian Britain series of social life picture scroll, but he has a romantic temperament, humor writer works and the character of the characters often appear strange. William mike skin, SaKeLei, (William Makepeace Thackray, 1811-1863) is the 19 th century another excellent novelist, was once and dickens in the literary world equal. "Vanity Fair" (Vanity Fair) through the heroine Rebecca, sharp's Fair in the story of the society, the snobs mercilessly expose and satire. SaKeLei "Henry ace have DE" (The History of Henry Esmond) is The History of English literature an outstanding historical novel. The 19 th century below the leaves other important novelist and Anthony Trollope (Anthony Trollope, 1815-1882), he was a prolific writer, published novel of 47 department, main work is "Barcelona county, novel Series" (Barchester Series). Samuel, burt le (Samuel Butler, 1835-1902) of the ella red huang "is a satirical novel," ella red huang "is nowhere but the English writing, through a tourist in an red huang seen and heard the story, the utopia national life, to attack and irony British society. He died, and was published by The Way of All "(The Way of All Life) criticized Britain of middle class in values, pointed to veer Victorian family, religion, morality.#p#分頁標題#e#
The 19 th century and the beginning of the twentieth century, many British novelist create "disillusioned" as the theme of the novel, is the most typical example of the Thomas Hardy (Thomas Hardy, 1840-1928). Hardy's novels have been home in Dorset, the county and near the rural areas as background, the early works describing the English countryside sights and clear quiet rural life, later works apparently become gloomy grave, its theme thought is unable to control the external force and inner impulse decided the personal destiny, and contribute to the tragedy. His "DE" Tess of the home of the treatment emergent symptoms scale (Tess of the D 'Urbervilles) and "Jude the Obscure" (Jude the Obscure) tells the story of the young men and women in southern England, cornered the tragic story of despair. By contrast, to the subject of overseas novels as a British overseas expansion at that time the refraction, fundamental key is not so gloomy, such as Rudyard Kipling, (Rudyard Kipling, 1865-1936) "Jim" (Jim) that the possibility of heroism, with imperialism colour. Joseph Conrad novel shows western expansionism transformation process in history, and carries on the reflection. The dark Heart "(Heart of Darkness) to show his western especially Belgium imperialist expansion, to national exploitation and oppression of discontent. The master Jim "(Lord Jim) story happened in southeast Asia Malay area, the hero obsession moral idea, because of his fault often suffer from his conscience, in order to sin, which eventually led to tragic end, works contain a colonial colour heroism criticism. Conrad novel, narrative Angle in layout and symbolism, etc consciously a series of innovation, and his novels become a British literary realism harbinger. Theme scope further expand, is this time novel creation characteristic. Arnold, the NAT (Arnold Bennett, 1867-1931) of the Old woman tan "(Old Wives' Tale) naturalistic novels described the northern England's industrial town life in ceramic production. William summers, Seth • Maugham (William Somerset Maugham, 1874-1965) by the creation Of the French socialist influence natural also, he's novel "the chains Of Human nature" (Of Human Bondage) show the hero out Of the process Of mental slavery. Herbert • George Wells (Herbert George Wells, 1866-1946) of The creation of The Time Machine "(The Time Machine) and a number of science fiction, fantasy and science will combine social criticism. John by Galsworthy (John Galsworthy, 1867-1933) in The forset "family" (The Forsyte Saga) to critical eye reveals The bourgeois family, social relations. E. m. Forster (e. m. Forster, 1879-1970) of the HuoHuaZi villa "(Howards End) for British social economy and culture, the rich and the poor, between men and women become increasingly sharp contradiction, explore establish" binding "relationship approach. In the India trip "(A Passage to India), he will" binding "thoughts used in the British empire and colonies A larger relationship of international scope. Conan Doyle (Arthur Conan Doyle, 1859-1930) shaped extraordinary intelligence, tight logic of distinctive individuality Sherlock Holmes, the famous detective image. In conan Doyle detective novels, the crime threat the stability of the social order, the detective's role is through the crimes to restore balance and stability.#p#分頁標題#e#
In the late nineteenth century British drama Renaissance. The British drama in The eighteenth century, except for elder brother's Smith's "bowed courtship" (She Stoops to Conquer) and Richard cloth LinSiLi • Sheridan (Richard Brinsley Sheridan, 1751-1816) black comedy of The School for Scandal, (The School for Scandal) besides, not too many builds. In the next one hundred years, the British drama has been in the recession. By the 1890 s, in the European continent playwright henrik Ibsen and under the influence of Britain had a new play sports, to get rid of the drama the condition of the recession, tiredness, present thriving scene. Comic genius Oscar Wilde, Oscar Wilde, 1854-1900) of the customs of the upper society comedy (ironic, wisecracking, full of paradox of 7) weird knowledge and witty jest. Bernard Shaw (George Bernard Shaw, 1856-1950) for example Ibsen, promote an thinking "question play", the social question introduction dramatic world, causes the play into reality. Bernard shaw life wrote many good script, such as Pygmalion (Pygmalion), "Joan of arc" (Saint Joan), etc. He is good at performance stage dialogue, the character language sharp, concise, and funny. Oscar Wilde and Bernard shaw is drama Renaissance milestone, their drama writing activities make Britain dramatic world happened fundamental change, change the British drama in one hundred of situation.
Seven, modern socialist literature period (1918-1945)
At the beginning of 20 centuries, the NAT, wales, by galsworthy adhere to the Victorian traditional realism creation, with realistic method records in the period of social transformation bourgeois society and family had a change. But they soon suffer from the challenge of the modernist literature. According to put JiNiYa • wu erfu (Virginia Woolf, 1882-1941) that 1910 is the English novels from traditional realism to modern socialist changes of the important year. The first world war ii is the change accelerated. War, a large number of innocent youth as fodder, died in vain. After the world war one, many British people since the Renaissance humanism about human nature, the basic concepts of human future and cultural traditions of the Christian faith happened to be moved. The profound changes in social ideas, and to promote the rapid development of modern literature, the British novels are also a new face. Among all d.h Lawrence (d. h. Lawrence) is the son of coal mine workers, he will view into sexual relationships, to reflect the defects of the western civilization. "Look, Mrs Lai of Lover" (Lady Chatterley 's Lover) had because bold sex description and in Britain and the United States been suppressed. He's The son and lover "(Sons and Lovers), and" The Rainbow "(The Rainbow)," Women in Love "(Women in Love) novel will be social criticism and The psychological exploration clever combined, lashed out at The capitalist industrial civilization. As the realism of the existing literature, modern socialist literature pursue psychology is real, paid attention to direct observation character's psychological activity, direct experience the characters inner feeling, in the heart world this mirror reflects the rich and colorful external reality. Born in elegant family's wu erfu outstanding achievements is stream-of-consciousness novels. Her "darrow WeiFuRen" (Mrs. Dalloway) and "To the Lighthouse" (To the Lighthouse) works break through the traditional idea of space and time, will stream of consciousness technique To use is superb, also reflects the writer for the history of female existence and current situation of the unique reflection. Come from Ireland's James Joyce (James Joyce, 1882-1941) is considered to be the Shakespeare English literature history after the great writer, he created the work "Ulysses" (Ulysses) to the traditional English novel brought about a revolution. Ulysses simple action, main account dida, Michael, bloom and bloom wife Molly three characters daily chores. The novel has written only actually Irish capital, Dublin a day to things. This is the day on June 16, 1904, Joyce and his future wife Nora had on this day's back for the first time, in addition, it is the most common but Dublin history of a day. Joyce in the novel is to show the essence of life and to the spiritual world of exploration, Ulysses so be some critics as the performance of the western "modern social life and all of history." Ulysses is about the success of the stream of consciousness on the surface swirl, huge, in fact structure neat, careful rigorous.#p#分頁標題#e#
The 1920 s is the history of literature and a brilliant of the golden age, literary bright stars, presenting to the public. In The field of poetry, t. s. Eliot (t. s. Eliot, 1888-1965) issued in 1922 The wasteland "(The Waste Land), The use of large describe The myth of The post-war western world view of The lost spirit, express The regeneration of hope. His poems to represent the modern poetry creation outstanding achievements. Irish poet William Butler Yeats, le burt (William Butler Yeats, 1865-1939) to build your own mysticism symbol system, and further discussed the philosophy of life. The creation of the road from the traditional Yeats into a modern, reflects the transition of the English poets and change, represents the modern poets out of the old days of influence, the creation of modern poetic style of the course.
British modern socialist literature in the ideological content and the artistic form is intended to get rid of traditional the fetter, has the vanguard color. Essentially, the modern socialist literature is elite literature, Ulysses was published, general civic people very few people attention. In crisis and the war as a times feature of 40 s, severe social reality, sharp social contradictions, pressing social problems, for the return of traditional realism literature create conditions, USES the practical technique novels again get the welcome of people. 30 s English novels in the subject from NaQing into the extroversion, performance of the dominant personal destiny social influence, in terms of form is from avant-garde to keep the traditional narrative. This period English literary arena appeared several to: one is to pay attention to the contemporary political and social issues, the creation have the tendency of the left-wing literature. 2 it is attacked the bourgeoisie upper classes of society's corruption, the creation society satirizes the novel. Evelyn, walter (Evelyn Waugh, 1903-1966) in the sin of the body "(Vile Bodies), the one holding the Dust" (A Handful of Dust) works such as depicted in British society marriage, family, school, religion, political life is absurd, evil and corruption. 3 it is the popular literature diversion. J. b. Priestley (j. b. Priestley, 1894-1984) with comedy about social meaning form all walks of life story, show the vast area renditions of British life. "The detective novel the queen" with Sally, o Christian (Agatha Christie, 1891-1976) in the Orient Express the Murder on "(Murder on the Orient Express) and Death on the Nile (Death on the Nile) detective novels carefully crafted in the ups and downs, story complicated plot, for readers to escape severe social reality to provide a imagine the world.
30 s also emerged two unique style of writer: Graham, green (Graham Greene, 1904-1991) and Robert groves (Robert Graves, 1895-1985). Green as a Catholic writer, to explore the modern society of the human spirit crisis, personal soul records in between good and evil suffering, and will explore the hearts of men and reflect the contemporary political and social problems together. At The end of The s was The Brighton hard candy "(Brighton Rock) and The Power and The Glory" (The Power and The Glory) laid him as The 20 th century important English novelist status. Greaves is a poet and novelist, he of the Roman empire trilogy "I, Claudius" (I, Claudius), and "the Claudius God and His Wife may sully the" (Claudius the God and His Wife Messalina), "bailey surrey uz earl" (Count Belisarius) is the modern historical novel classic, realistic expression makes life in ancient character has the affinity, and at the same time, keep the historic.#p#分頁標題#e#
Eight, the contemporary literature (1945-
In 1945, the second world war, the British from years of wartime appearance into peace period, but the national strength has been seriously weakened, anxiety and discontent of reality to emerge in the postwar British novel. George Orwell (George Orwell, 1903-1950) political fable of the novel "Animal Farm" (Animal Farm) and the "1984" (Nineteen Eighty Four) displays a strong sense of responsibility and the society of totalitarian threat concerns of its own. Mr Golding (William Golding, 1911-1993) published in 1954, "Lord of the Flies" (Lord of the Flies), explores the human nature of good and evil, that his fame. After two after world war ii, Mr Golding to human nature description of the evil will have strong sense of The Times and profundity.
50 s also sprung up a batch of realism to new writer. Kingsley, Ames (Kingsley Amis, 1922-and John Wayne (John Wain, 1925-1994), known as the "angry youth", because they express in the novel of the British social bureaucratically, inequality between the present situation of anger and discontent. Kingsley, Ames in "Lucky Jim" (Lucky Jim) weave "unfortunate people unexpectedly get Lucky" plot readers love, is "angry youth" a masterpiece.
"Angry youth" the characteristics of new content is performance, not the creation of new literary form, they in art and no breakthrough. English literature in the 60 s of the experiment until the emergence of the novel, just to let people see the direction of the artistic innovation. Compared with continental Europe and the U.S., British experimental socialist novel comes slowly, and traditional realism and photograph the fusion. John wemen (John Fowles, 1926-is an outstanding representative of The socialist writer, he's novel "The French Lieutenant's Woman" (The French Lieutenant 's Woman) appeared in 1969. This is his technique reform and ideas in expressed in the most successful of the novel. Wemen for story provide three different ending, and use a lot of experimental factors, including parody, yuan novels and novel narrative Angle of the openness of the readers and transformation.
Postwar British literary a remarkable phenomenon is the rise of women writers, they have not only from the creation of the female perspective to the present contemporary women in patriarchal society by distress and women self awareness side, but also avoid women self consciousness, to the gender, the writer observation of the world, the performance of identity side of life. Doris Lessing, (Doris Lessing, 1919-is the most outstanding women postwar British writer, her novels with a strong practical tendency and the distinctive characteristics of The Times, based on people and the social, political and cultural ideological trend of contemporary reflection, and from different point of view and reflect the true situation of society. Muriel,, parker (Muriel Spark, 1918-is a Catholic writer, with her unique way to express her modern sinners concern. Another woman writer Alice, Murdoch (Iris Murdoch, 1919-1999) once teach philosophy at Oxford University, is a in philosophy has a deep accomplished novelist. Her novel in various ways to talk about freedom and responsibility, the meaning of love, with strong philosophical. "In the off-line" (Under the Net), and "the sand castle" (the Sandcastle), and "the clock" (the Bell) novel will be profound philosophical ideas, calm moral exploration and unique narrative methods combined, the author thought the situation of human life, give a person with enlightenment.#p#分頁標題#e#
The second world war and the early stage of postwar period, the British drama creation except elliott's ShiJu beyond, in general, in a state of recession. The middle of s, there was a group of characteristic new play, to the British drama development bring vigor. On August 3, 1955, Samuel Beckett, (Samuel Beckett, 1906-" Waiting for godot "(Waiting for Gogot) in English for the first time in the London premiere. May 8, 1956 John Osborne (John Osborne, 1929-of the angry review (Look Back in Anger) in the royal palace theatre first performance. Beckett and osborne two playwrights on behalf of the creation of the s to s British drama development of the two main direction, that is rewarding drama and realism drama. Harold characters (Harold Pinter, 1930-" threatened comedy "marked with a fantastic color, and Arnold, wes g (Arnold Wesker, 1932-of the Barley Soup" (Chicken Soup with Barley) plays a realistic approach to the performance of the east end of London, the people's life, he and osborne the work of the person such as been dubbed the "kitchen XiWanChi play" of the title. Rewarding drama and realism drama performance content creation style, each is different, but they all broke traditional drama the bondage of the genre. At the end of the s, the British stage and about in new play the second wave, Tom stokes lampard (Tom Stoppard, 1937-of the imaginative "imitate piece" the grand and Jill rosen this up to swallow, Dead "(Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead) from Shakespeare's Hamlet out in two minor characters, to let them take the center of the stage. The plot has the characteristics of the absurd. Peter sand eph (Peter Shaffer, 1926-is British modern dramatic world a talented dramatist, his "god's pet" (Amadeus about Mozart and his contemporary composers, sand the story of the royal court, the grand scene, with a musical majestic imposing manner, by the audience's welcome.
Of the 20 th century, elliott topped the British and American poets, his poetry creation and literary criticism of contemporary and then thought the poet an impact. 30 s, Dylan Thomas (Dylan Thomas, 1914-1953) with his unique way to continue promoting modern poetry of the experimental and innovation. 50 s to Philip, Larkin (Philip Larkin, 1922-1985), as a representative of the "campaign sent" poet against Thomas romantic style, trying to restore 18 th century ago Britain traditional poetry, in their poems have full-bodied amorous feelings of British home and wit, cold high characteristics. Ted, Hughes (Ted Hughes, 1930-1998) wrote many poems are animals, but focused on it is human feelings. The poet through the animals to show natural and human cruelty sex. Since the 70 s British poetry look from whole is multipole development, the local tendency obvious. Irish poet west Morse, henrique (Seamus Heaney, 1939-of the subject matter is the traditional poetry rural life, his description of the pastoral scenes reminds people of Wordsworth. In 1995, was awarded the Nobel Prize for literature.#p#分頁標題#e#
S and s, the British literary made a batch of rookie, Martin Ames (Martin Amis, 1949-is the outstanding among contemporaries. Novel the Money: A Suicide Note "(Money: A Suicide Note) criticize the idea of capitalist society of crazy for Money worship. The Arrow of Time "(Time 's Arrow) unique narrative," Arrow of Time "to come over, make the existing back in Time. Novels like you play this backwards video, the hero become otzi d XinJi camp in Nazi doctor the process in order to come over. Ames creation by kafka, rob Gerry yeah, BoErHeSi effects such as, in the works of the realistic narrative with the stream of consciousness, black humor and magical realism and other modern technique. This period of history many novelist theme is very interested in, create a batch of outstanding works, such as, graham Swift (Grahm Swift, 1949-connect east Anglia "depression" make (Waterland), Peter Ike Lloyd (Peter Ackroyd, 1949-of The Oscar Wilde's final testimony "(The Last Testament of Oscar woman begins by resisting, Julian Barnes (Julian Barnes, 1946-Flaubert's Parrot, (Flaubert 's Parrot), etc. These works by postmodernism influence, by the critics called "new historical novel", its characteristic is to tell the history in the process, questioned the "real" concept, the narrator to obtain a self knowledge. A new generation of women writers is an outstanding representative, A.S. worship eritrea (a. s. Byatt, 1936-and Margaret Della Boolean (Margaret Drabble, 1939-the sisters. They are British literature research experts, belong to the knowledge women writers. Worship, eritrea has in university, Della Boolean is the Oxford English literature guide "editor. Worship eritrea's "holds" (Possession) the Victorian poet state of spirit and modern scholars compare the mental state of the story in the history and the modern two affection experience unwinds, past and present blend mutually, the former to the latter effect.
At the same time, Britain a few African writers also in fiction, made remarkable progress. V. s. endure Paul (v. s. Naipaul, 1932-was born in Trinidad a indians family, the 1950 government scholarship to Oxford University, study English literature, in 1954 was a bachelor's degree, settlement in the UK. The gas than the House of Mr, "(A House for Mr Biswas) through the early, Mr. Gas than the experience of life, vivid described the Trinidad Indian people's way of life and customs. The River "(A Bend in the River) revealed new independent African countries of the dictatorship of tyranny and corruption. Paul in Nigeria will fictional story works, the real narrative, autobiographic words are shirt-sleeve, good performance the modern state of existence of lack of belonging. In 2001, Paul Nigeria awarded the Nobel Prize for literature. Born in mumbai, India Muslim family of rich merchants, the Salman Rushdie's rush (Salman Rushdie, 1947-is a legendary figure, his controversial novel "the Satanic Verses" (Satanic Verses) for not properly alluding to the prophets and the Koran, cause the Muslim world widespread protests. Rush's "the Midnight of the birth of the child" (Midnight 's Children) is a masterpiece of, the 1981 booker prize in 1993, and was to commemorate the anniversary of the establishment of 25 booker prize for "best novel booker prize for 25 years." Novel will be the Indian subcontinent more than half a century of disturbances, dazzling social phenomenon, different religion, culture and religion were together, myth, fables, legend, pun witticisms and civic life slang mixed together, vividly conveys the traditional folk, religious conflict and city life picture. A stone black male (Kazuo Ishguro, 1954-is Japan African writer, age 5 follow father come to The UK, The event trace left "(The Remains of The Day) won The booker prize in 1989 when he only 35 years old. The hero Stevens is a British noble manor housekeeper, he after six days of memories, in construction, and to reflect on the disappearance of the past. The trace left event "unique perspectives, from a steward eyes to see 30 s of Europe, the authors do not write directly history significant events, but through the housework to write state, world. A male black stone in The mid 90 s publication "failed to comfort of person" (The Unconsoled) change his creation style, is a kafka type works to show a surreal world like dream.#p#分頁標題#e#
Th century colorful English literature, realism and experimental socialist crisscross overlap, women writers and a few African writer sprung up, and the British literature is diverse development trend.
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