There is some important changes take place in the global organization of capitalism due to vast growth of globalization and these changes cause a pressure in the firms which are operating in the international market. One of the important change take place in the global organization of capitalism is suddenly increase of Merger& Acquisition activity rate and another was restructuring the complete enterprise procedures in front of the co-ordinators. The firms are not recruiting the employee directly because they taking contracts and outsourcing because they can reduce their capital and other costs.
Due to outsourcing and contract, complexity will increase in the firms. Innovation of global capitalism and globalization is stands on the top position than others (decreasing the operate obstacle and other is decreasing of global movement of capital obstacle. National IRS is take part in the globalization acceleration and rising. According to predisposition national IRSs it is time to introduce the workers rule in the firms. In now a day's firms are increasing the use HRM after the modification take place in the worker rules. In the organization employee relation cycle has been occurred due to HRM domination and with the growth of flexibilization. In present days the firms are divided the workers into two categories
Flexible Workers: These types of workers are temporary works and part time workers and they are not directly recruited. These types of workers are taken from suppliers & sub-contractors. Especially giving more priority to female workers.
Core Workers: Generally these types of are fulltime &permanent worker and most of them are professionals; they are recruited directly by company. They are working in headquarters of the firm, and receive high wage rates. In the recent decades in the developing countries like India and China the employment is suddenly increased due to outsourcing and subcontracting. Among them flexible and female worker are rapidly increased.#p#分頁標題#e#
For example in India, flexible worker are increasing more among them female worker are more in the firms. If we consider some insurance & banks organizations, they are hiring the flexible worker more, in their product promotion and sales. As well as in telecom companies are also recruiting flexible workers in customer service area.
In the enterprise the HRM is used in two ways
To regulate the flexible workforce.
To regulate the core workforce.
HRM is used in direction of inclusive, participatory and cooperative for core workers, and it is helpful for core workforce to gain the strategic objectives of firm. HRM highlights rewards like monetary, skills and performance. On other hand HRM highlights the insecure & short term, undignified environment, and low hourly rates employments etc., for flexible Workforce.
By this paper we can understand firms which are disturbing with competitive pressures globally in national market as well as in niche & local markets. These types of organizations are suffering to manage the production same as international firms production.
By considering the secondary information this article was given by official statistical documents, research papers, journals, and published books.
3 Literature Review:文獻綜述
The author Mohammad Ziaul Hoq (2009) is explained about the globalization and their affects causes to the regulations of the labour and relationship among employers. Scholte (2000) explains about the both the positive and negative sides of the globalization capitalism and regarding the TNC's and MNC's activities are elaborated by the author Knudsen (2001). In literature review is give detail description of sections 3.1 Global Capitalism & Globalization,3.2 Global Market Challenges and issues of HRM, 3.4 Globalization and the 'Flexibilization' or 'Informalization' of Work,3.5 Human Resource Management (HRM), Flexibilization and Globalization, 3.6 National Industrial Relations Systems (IRSs) & HRM.
3.1 Global Capitalism & Globalization
First we will deal with the global capitalism then we will go for the different sub-modes of the capitalism (monopoly and competitive) which they are existing in past & present capitalist social formation. Generally Capitalist social formation maintains the relations between pre-capitalist and present capitalist in production.
In now a day the global capitalism is unable to maintain the relation between the firms that are in monopoly and competitive area. As per the author (Scholte 2000), he dispute about the capitalism, if we see in positive side, it is major factor for globalization, but if we see in negative side it is major consequence for global capitalism. Up to now for capitalism, globalization gave strong foundation all over the world and remaining goes to sectors like finance, consumer, communications and information. Capitalism in organisations is following the shifts due to surplus accumulation extension in the finance, consumer, communications and information sectors and as well as the trans-border companies, offshore centres, oligopoly and corporate acquisitions & mergers are increase with this (Scholte, 2000). As per observation by the author (Knudsen 2001) regarding MNC's and TNC's are concentrated on the global economic activities of organisation. As per review in the year 1996, approximately 44,000 TNC's are monitoring the 280,000 of the small TNC's among them home-based TNC's are 7,000. In that TNC's headquarters are located in developed countries. Out of 100 largest economies, 50 are TNC's including India and china. As per author (Malhotra, 1998) 50% of FDI are invested in the TNC's and the 500 TNC's are monitored 70% of global trade. If we coming to employee category among 5 employees in big organisation at least one employee from TNC's. The rapid growth in TNC's is due to the Cross-border acquisitions & mergers. If any company is called as a MNC's it should follow the 'divide and rule' tactics in workforce. This type of tactic is helpful in condition when same company manufacture the same product in various locations. The company performance at different location can acquire effectively with this techniques.#p#分頁標題#e#
3.2 Global Market Challenges and issues of HRM:
To revival &increase agenda in the individual country different instructions have to apply
Dealing with Financial Managers and
Partnership in economic recovery
Workers Consequences and Globalization:
Changes in IRS
New technology Impact
Work structure changes in developing and industrialized countries.
3.3 Flexibilization and Globalization:
In the recent years the accelerated globalization has affect to employment opportunities as well as environment of work. By observing the author (Scholte 2000) he define a name as 'flexibilization,' other authors as 'in-formalization' in work due to misleading in development. Due to flexibilization, the way of arrangements in work floor, labour mobility, wages and working practices has affected. Various guises behind labour flexibility, they are,
Decreasing the permanent employees
Maintaining new temporary employees
Maintaining extra workers like migrants, females, apprentices.
Doing sub-contracts maintenance, security, packaging, transport.
Arranging the hours in shift mode and increasing the shifts per day, maintain the system based payments according hourly based prices.
Giving the training to the employees in multiple tasks with in the firm.
Decreasing the impact of the union which is from the external trade.
As per (Kanji 2001) the globalization is generated as "The deregulation of labour markets, fragmentation of production processes, de-industrialization and emergence of new areas of export specialization". There is more demand for the flexible labours even though there is lot of trouble for workers and employees due to globalization. In that more demand for female workers around the world. In recent years the jobs are increase in developed countries mainly in part-time jobs. For unskilled jobs there is a restriction for female workers. In the advanced industrial economies have more boom for the flexible jobs like hospitality, banking, retail, information and communications etc. As well as more demand for textile and clothing industries. Flexibilization is not only for the developed industrial countries (high-wage countries) it also applicable for the traditional industrial countries (low-wage countries) also. In each and every enterprise flexibilization plays a vital role because of competitive in the market. As per (Scholte, 2000) the workers in the every enterprise are like improved wages and better arrangement in the working hours and to take part in the firm development.#p#分頁標題#e#
3.4 Human Resource Management (HRM), Flexibilization and Globalization
As mentioned above globalization became critical issue in the firm's competitiveness to survive and firms expansion. Globalization became vital factor for both firms activates internationally and local firms. As per author Sriyan DE Silva said that to reach market demands, needs the firms are trying to improve the quality of goods and in production of products, flexibility in the employee work arrangement. In this trend to maintain the quality of human resources in firms became a critical issue in the global competitiveness.
To achieve the firm objectives the modern firms' management should not allow directly the self- management and their issues. If there is encourage through staff in the firm it take part to reach the firm goals and most of the firms have effective management to reach their firm objectives. The main goal for the HRM is to maintain the quality of human resources because it plays important role in the global competitiveness. So the HRM place a top position in the structure of management. The give the clear cut idea about the management this is the right time to determines management values and powers. The choice of management is the research or rediscovered, and then coming to the control and command, the importance is on assurance of flexibility, quality.
3.6 National Industrial Relations Systems (IRSs) & HRM:
HRM policies and national industrial relation system are determined regulations of employee and employer relations. (Fleming and Seborg 2001). National IRS elements are determined by
Labour markets and
Industries like Regulatory & legislative structure
Employee and employers agreement has been included in the frame work. According to the observations of Fleming and Soborg (2001), the basic labour standards of the ILO should be implemented as the core of the international IRS for the effectiveness. Better intensive actions to be taken by the national based unions and peak union bodies and proper decision making coordination in international level for the international IRS to be much effective. International IRS is attempted to function effectively by The International Trade secretariats (ITS) of the International confederation of Free Trade for both developing and developed countries has been limited by the resultant weakness of organized labour internationally.
4. Conclusion: 結論
Due to globalization both local and national firms are facing competitive pressure. By these competitive pressures the national and international firms are redesigning the production especially in subcontracting and outsourcing of worker. To regulate the employment along with Supply Chain & governance of national IRS, for labor regulation HRM is used as an in-house System. The workforce is divided into two types due to governance of HRM that is flexible and core workers. Among the flexible worker are more in present days, in these female workers are increased rapidly. The reason behind the increase of flexible workers is- trade unions and government especially to reduce the capital of the firm. Even though the flexible workers are more but there is limited access for workers in every country to work in national and international market.#p#分頁標題#e#
5. Recommendations: 建議
Relations between the employee and employer should be maintain properly once the relation is maintain properly means performance of the employee will be increase.
Secure the internet based marketing.
Recruit the worker from the developing country because the wages will be less and returns will be increase within a few months
Change working environments in the organizations.
The purpose of this paper is to make analysis of training and development programmes and difference between training and development and interlink between them through theoretically and practically with the help of HRD and psychological literatures as well as Importance of role of managers in the organisation and how managers take responsibility in training and development programmes. The interview was conducted around 45 minutes, and it consists of open questions, semi-structured interviews. Mainly concentrated on mangers and their suggestions and some experience regarding their work. The interview is mainly based on the research questions about training and development, development & training relation and decision making. From the qualitative answers from the managers of different organizations, the argument of training and development raised where each manger viewed these two concepts in different manner summarizing all the data the training and the development are interweaved with each other. In a broad sense training is a confined formula and is done in a planned manner whereas the development is considered to be related to career development by concentrating on individual duties and it is also mentioned by major number of managers as ongoing process, futuristic planning and an open ended strategy.
1. Background: 背景
The organisation have the strong belief regarding the training and development, and they expecting more returns in this program (salmon 2003), in now day all organizations are offered training. If we compare the past, present and future training activates these is a lot of difference. The changing of work environment causes the cycle in training, as per UK manager's training is the only method that employee can understood easily. As per (Arthur and Rousseau, 1996) Individual oriented training and development creates a learner, so a new career will start. 60% of organisations are offered development programs and 1/6 of the organisations are developing the development programmes to show the important role of managers, due to this the managers are concentrated on developing actives. The analysis of this paper is made research on the training and development activities and relation between them from the literatures of HRD and psychological as well as how the managers are implemented in realistic.
2. Training vs. Development: 培訓與發展：
Training and development are same scenarios but they are implemented in different ways. Coming to training, it is a part of organizational activity to give the complete details of the firm's strategies and what are approaches are implemented in firm. On other hand development is a self activity to learn new things which gives support to their careers (Antonacopolou 2001). As per warr (2002, p.154) , "job-specific training seeks to improve effectiveness in a current job role, whereas development activities take a longer-term perspective and may extend into career planning and reviews of personal progress". Training deals about the performance of the employer in contrast development is long- term efficiency to take care about their careers (Laird 1985, p. 11).
The difference between training and development is given in below table,
Differences between conceptual and theoretical:
Hypothesis is taken from strategies of firms and organization development.
Hypothesis is embedded into cognitive psychology &Learning theory, and maintained relation between organisational desires &personal features. Here the research regarding the assessment and efficiency of training.
Via response &individual indication
Via skill &instruction possession
It creates explicitly individual differences
It creates individual effectiveness
Relation between employee &employer
Depended on the employer to learn multiple skill for their careers, that is "Transactional contract"
Relation is maintain to give training for their employers i.e., "relational contract"
Growth in marketability to feature &existing firm, Improvement in Learning &self awareness.
Benefits for organizations and enhanced technically these causes development in firms
It shows range between different activities that is studies.
It is the proof to show transferable skills from training this causes success in their area and task performance improvement
Improvement in individual factor and long-term efficiency
Improvement in potential position
Orientation in long term
Orientation in fixed term
Gives support in Participation in literature.
Gives Support equally to training &development organizational actives.
Stand-alone &one -off
The main emphasise of practical difference is on employee performance and focus on development of organization on time-framed activity and these activities are supported by the role of managers.
3. Methodology: 方法論
3.1 Sampling and recruiting procedure:
To get the answer for the proposed question of research a sample of 26 managers were recruited from different institutions across UK which comprises public and private sector institutes and they were initially contacted by e-mail by quoting the purpose as subject. The mangers duty includes recognizing the need of proper training to the employee for skill development and out of these the answers of senior managers are quite different. At most care is taken at the beginning to fetch the qualitative answers from the managers as it is not a face to face interview and sufficient time is given to analyze the question. To follow up transcription was done while following a telephonic interview and the statements were recorded later by analyzing the data and narrowing to brief answer so that the answer to the research question is qualitative and useful. The identity of the managers is kept confidential and is referred to as alphabets.
3.2 Interview schedule:
The interview was conducted around 45 minutes, and it consists of open questions, semi-structured interviews. Mainly concentrated on mangers and their suggestions and some experience regarding their work. The interview is mainly based on the research questions about training and development, employee relationship in training and decision making. One of the question was raised to a manager regarding the decision making is "Under what circumstances or conditions are [particular type of activity] most useful?" and consequent research was "What would make you choose development rather than training activities, for a particular employee?"
The interview schedule was designed with 5 managers and they said these questions was completely relevant and phrased questions. After completion of first 6 interviews the participants has get clear idea about the training and development. Later the manager has encouraged the participants. Each and every interview was record exactly, preserving individual terms as well as sentence structure.#p#分頁標題#e#
3.3 Template analysis:
Template analysis is used to analyse the transcripts to convert into codes. To understand the code, we have to see it in realistic view and with help of research questions. Template analysis will create codes and themes, and these are implemented in elements of the data. The coding is done in hierarchical mode to get the information from the code at 2nd and 3rd levels (King's 2004). After analysing the 6 interviews they identify that 1st level code was typical to understand. In the 1st level they mentioned about the managers differentiation regarding training and development because due to some codes the relations could e overlapped. With the help of this level remaining level can be understand easily via constant revision process. The unused codes are removed and new codes are added. In higher levels of hierarchy are more silent themes and lover level contains less salient themes. Until the new code is doesn't appears in date process is sustained. After conducting the 13 interviews some changes take place in data. Among the whole process, codes are rooted.
From the qualitative answers from the managers of different organizations, the argument of training and development raised where each manger viewed these two concepts in different manner summarizing all the data the training and the development are interweaved with each other. In a broad sense training is a confined formula and is done in a planned manner whereas the development is considered to be related to career development by concentrating on individual duties and it is also mentioned by major number of managers as ongoing process, futuristic planning and an open ended strategy. The mangers replied to the direct question.
4. Training and development Decisions: 培訓與發展決策：
Based on the employee level the decision regarding training and development were taken. If the employee is having with less skill he or she needs training to perform in the exiting job, after that they concentrated on development activities to build a career path. Based on the nature of the objective the active participate were chosen, mainly focused on different fields about the business. On e of the manager had decision regarding the education environment is "I think for training it's a question of having the skills and the knowledge to do the job that they're doing now and making sure that performance is at a reasonable level . . . once they've got their tool-bag fairly healthily full up with the training they need to do, then I would consider developmental training, on secondments and things like that"
Like this comments are received from other mangers regarding motivations of organization significances (Colquitt et al., 2000), here the more probability have for training because it has comprehensible benefits & technical skills. To take the enhanced decisions regarding the training, it is important to have comprehensible benefits. Though self inspiration emerged more critical for development on other hand it is less for training. Managers take more responsibility then the employee regarding decision making.#p#分頁標題#e#
5. Results: 結果
As per (Skinner 2004) suggested that the personal behaviour changes also include in the training and later it reassign to job. This is help to measure the objective easily. On other hand the results of the development are varied compared to training that increase the span. One of the managers from the public sector is explained as
"Less easily measured, of a longer-term nature, in other words you don't go to another course to develop your interpersonal skills and come back with them wonderfully developed. It's something that you build up and develop over a period of time I think".
As a results development is long-term efficiency and training is the short term efficiency.
6. Conclusion 結論
As per the research behind the training and development shows the training and development theories. To show the evidence regarding the training and development and it is thing in manager's hand. By linking the training and development actives will be effective. As per the results that due to training in the organization will get more returns then the development. From the climatic changes the important values can be secured in contrast development have not secure the important values. As per analysis for further studies we have to take the formative approach and there is no exact guide for the mixed procedures but for mixed process the investigation is significant especially for this movement. Due to rescissions the organizations are not investing in the training. This analysis gives the details of the development activities. This was the feedback to the employee, to improve the development and it motivate efficiently. By considering the managers acknowledgement and the motivational factors is effective support for the development activities. The main emphasis of this research is regarding the interlink of development & training rather than the development & training differences.
7. Recommendations: 建議
Implementing centralized training to employers
Communication between employee and employer
Entire training & development is dynamically associating thru practical sections to employees.
Making stress on core topics and variety topics which is useful for the on sight employees.