教育學assignment：A Comparative Study on Family Education in America and China
Abstract: In a lifetime , family is the first school , in which parents are the first teachers for the children . Children are the hopes of a nation , and family education is the elementary education for children . There are many types of family education in the world and each of them shows distinctive features and is closely responsive to its culture . And American family education is the most famous one among them . There are great differences in the concepts of education , aim of education , methods of education and contents of education between American family education and Chinese family education . This thesis will complete the comparative study from the differences , the reasons and the results of family education between America and China . The author hopes to find a satisfied family education method through comparing the differences between American family education and Chinese family education . At the same time , the author hopes this thesis can provide some helpful suggestions for family education in order to make children grow more healthily and roundly .
Keywords: family education childeren differences education for all-around development
Ⅰ.The differences of family education between America and China:
1. The concepts of family education are different .
The different education concepts between America and China lead children to receive differert education . In China , many parents only care about whether the children have a promising future , a good job , a good life or not . Based on these expectations , the majority of parents feel that their responsibility for their children is to create as good conditions as possible they can so that the children will not worry about anything in the future . Chinese parents would like to provide everything what they can for their children in the process of children’s growth . In short , they would like to sacrifice anything if their children can live better with their help . Therefore, in the process of children’s growth, the most important thing the parents concerning is to develop their children’s intellect , except for caring children’s daily life . In order to make their children have a good performance in study , become outstanding , or even become a famous person in the future , they would not let children do anything except studying . Contrastively , American parents generally believe that the growth of childeren must rely on their own strength and experiences. Based on this concept , most American parents emphasize more to train their children’s ability of independence once they are born because they think that children should form a self-supporting will and the capacity to live independently since their childhood . And the capacity comes from the training in the early age . #p#分頁標題#e#
In the film 《Gua Sha Treatment》 , there is a scene that Datong orderded his son to apologize to his boss’s son when his saw his son was fighting with his boss’s son . What’s more , he slapped his son in the face when his son refused to apologize , which gave his boss aquite a shock . His boss became confused why the father would show the regret by striking his son . This scene and the boss’s confusion reflect the different concepts between the two countries . Traditonal Chinese family education emphasize kindheartedness and bedience , so we can say that Chinese parents like Datong in the film always want to model their children . On the contrary , America children have more rights of autonomy because their parents emphasis on justice and freedom in the process of family education .
2. The aim of family education are different .
The aim of family education is to foster the childeren to grow in some direction by family education . It is the restrictive factor for the direction of family education , deciding the general effect of it . So the aim of family education is the core of family education and the fundamental reason for the differences between the two countries on family education .
There is an essential difference between two countrys’ aim of family education , with to expect the child to become an outstanding personage and to hope the child to be an comprehensive and independent person giving expressions to the difference . To most Chinese parents , the aim is expecting their child to be a “ dragon ” , which is “ wang zi cheng long ” in Chinese . But American parents take hoping the child to be a man of ability which is “ wang zi cheng ren ” in Chinese as their aim . For Chinese parents, their aim is to do anyting to support their children to get high marks . What forms apparent contrast to it is , America parents give their children more training about improving abilities . They try to train their children to have the ability of adapting to environmental variety and the ability of living independently .
3. The methods are different between America and China .
The differences of concepts and aim cause the childen to be taught by different ways and methods . In Chinese family , affected by Chinese traditional culture , parents educate children by “ control ” and “ seal ” type . There are three tips for it :
(1) Chinese parents prepare all things for their children in daily life . In Chinese family , children don’t have to do any housework .
(2) Chinese parents protect the children to excess in social activities . Many children are prevented from exposure to the outer world because their parents worry about children’s being affected by bad things .
(3) Chinese parents have a rather strict attitude toward children’s study . Parents regard the grades as the only standard for future success . “ Tasks Sea ” strategy is often used in study . Chinese children are tired of doing many extra exercises . #p#分頁標題#e#
So Chinese children spend more time in studying than doing other things . What about America children ? Let’s talk about the famous film 《The Pacifier》 . In the film , it may be unconcious , but Shane Wolfe had let the kids master many skills by training them during the time when he cared them . So American parents bring up their children by the method of “ letting go ” but “ not indulging ” to exercise children’s abilities of independent living .
4. The different contents of family education between America and China .
The differences of family education between the two countries are also reflected in the contents of family education . Although the contents of Chinese family education can also devided into moral education , intellectual education , physical education and artistic education , but intellectual education has been the most important one since they go to school . However , the contents of American family education is abundant , which pay more attention to the harmonious development of language , emotion , knowledge and so on . It is so-called “ education for all-around development ” .
Ⅱ.The reasons for the differences mentioned above:
1. Different historical background
China with a long histroy has a sort of cohesive and conservative sense of worth , which is lack of spirit of adventure and innovative consciousness . There is a shortage of environment in which people can accept new ideas . By contraries , America is a nation of immigrants with a short history , there remains so little traditional culture . With the influence of multi culture and sense of worth , it is easy to accept new thoughts and culture . So America children are better at taking risks and innovating .
2. Different economic form
China has a long histroy with a large population .Therefore , there are so few opportunities to find a job even a good job which can decide one’s life happiness . And getting high marks has become a necessary condition to have a good job and future . The condition of econemy in America is better than that in China , so there are more employment opportunities in America . American parents think profession is not distinguished whether it is noble or nidering as long as they can survive in society .
3.Different social conditions
So far , social security system and old-age care have not been perfect in China . Many Chinese parents take their children as their private possession in order to receive the children’s return , which is reflected in the methods of education . For this reason , their children’s high scores have become their origin of pride . But in America , there is a prosper development of econemy and sane social security system , so American parents don’t count on their children’s support . They see educating child to be an independent , conscientious and kindhearted person as their duties .
4.Different traditional culture
In China , people advocate collectivism which emphasize the collective interests more important than personal interests . Therefore , Chinese parents usually replace children’s interests by their own wills and thoughts . They design children’s future standing in the adult angle . What’s more , in Chinese family , parents can raise their children in the lifetime . However , stressing personality , upholding individual development and caring about personal benefit are all the cores of American culture . Rationalistic American parents insist that children after 18 years old should be independent and not rely on their parents . #p#分頁標題#e#
Ⅲ.The results of two different kinds of family education :
The results of family education in the two countries also display obvious differences because of the differences of education concepts , aim , methods and contents . These are mainly reflected in five aspects .
1. Ability of adapting to the society
Most Ameican children can adapt to the society more smoothly than many Chinese children . They can face and overcome setbacks more easily .
2. Ability of living independently
Compared with independent American children , Chinese children have particularly much requirements and strong dependence ,and they always want to get others’ care .
3. Interpersonal relationships
As a result of parents’ overprotection , Chinese children have few ablities of personal interaction . American children are opposite at this point .
4. Responsibility of supporting the old
Generally speaking , Many American children lack the sense of responsibility to support their parents in comparison with Chinese children .
5. The relationship among family members
As a whole , the relationship among Chinese family members is more harmony than that among American family . The relationship of Chinese family is very close , but in America ,family members look like separate individuals .
Ⅳ. Discussions and Suggestions :
In this thesis , it is only a generic comparative study on family education in America and China . Of course , there is also distinctiveness on it . In addition , compared with Chinese family education , American family education also has its obvious shortage . So the aim of this thesis is not totally to repudiate Chinese family education or wholly to accept American family education . In the end ,by the comparative study on family education in America and China , the writer wants to cause reform ideas of Chinese family education in order to improve Chinese education level .
According to our country’s special circumstances, the number of one-child family is becoming larger , so family education must be improved in the project of educational reform and development and family education must be combined with school education and social education. Therefore, it is necessary to change traditional family education ideas .
(1) Chinese parents should educate their children in social environment , in other words , they should not only teach their children the knowledge of survival , but also the responsibilities for the society .
(2) Chinese parents must cultivate their children’s consciousness of independence , self-support , cooperation and the spirit of caring for others .
(3) In China , education for all-around development should be vigorously advocated and implemented effectively .
(4) Much can be learned from each other on the ways of family education for America and China .
In a word , family education is very important . With the development of society , all aspects of family education needs to be improved . #p#分頁標題#e#
Epilogue: This is the first time for me to write thesis in English , and I haven’t had enough knowledge and experience , so there must be some shortcomings . I will appreciate it that my teacher can be kind enoug to point the mistakes and help me to correct them . In the meantime , I will study hard to know more about family education in America and China and make greater progress in the future .
1.《淺談中美家庭教育的差異》 高維亮 王麗艷 （《科學時代》 2006.11）
2.《學前兒童家庭教育(修訂版)》 李生蘭 華東師范大學出版社
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4. 《Gua Sha Treatment》 鄭曉龍 導演
5. 《不同文化傳統下中美家庭教育中的評價比較》 唐梅 （《世界教育信息》2007.4）(加標注12)
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7. 校選修課 《…………》 授課教師：……
8. 《中美家庭教育的對比與分析》 （《聯合早報網》）
9.《The Pacifier》 Adam Shankman
10.《中美家庭教育比較分析及對策研究》 李子銀 （《當代教育論壇》2007.06）（加標注13）
11.Sina blog “tingting and her mother ” http://blog.sina.com.cn/jenniferyuting
12．《American Family Education》 ailin 中央編譯出版社
13.《East look , West see》 zhaihua 中圖書店出版社
14. 《中美家庭教育的六點比較》 王樂 （《家教指南》2008年第五期）
15.《北大批判－中國高等教育有病》 薛涌 江蘇文藝出版社
16.《造就小主人：教導孩子在做家務中養成勤勞、負責的美德》 帕特麗夏H•斯普林科 知識產權出版社
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